Religious Minorities and the State: A Study of Freedom and Persecution

مذہبی اقلیتیں اور ریاست: آزادی اور ظلم و ستم کا ایک مطالعہ


  • Dr. Israr Ahmed Professor of Islamic Studies and Religious Studies, Princeton Author
  • Rudolf Otto Peking University, China Author


Religious minorities, state, freedom, persecution, human rights, tolerance, case studies, theoretical frameworks


This study investigates the intricate relationship between religious minorities and the state, with a particular focus on the dynamics of freedom and persecution. Through an interdisciplinary approach, drawing upon sociological, legal, and political perspectives, the research explores how state policies and actions impact the religious freedoms of minority groups, often leading to instances of persecution. By examining a range of case studies from different geographical regions and historical periods, the study illuminates the complex interplay of power, ideology, and identity in shaping the experiences of religious minorities within various state contexts. Furthermore, the study critically evaluates international frameworks and mechanisms designed to protect religious freedom and mitigate persecution, highlighting both their strengths and limitations. Ultimately, this research contributes to a deeper understanding of the challenges faced by religious minorities in negotiating their rights and freedoms within the framework of state governance, and underscores the importance of fostering religious tolerance and pluralism as fundamental principles of democratic societies.